This fact sheet discusses flicker metrics, contributing factors, and consequences in addition to comparing the flicker attributes of a sample of conventional and LED sources.
The advancement of commercially available LED products is reopening discussions on how the performance of light sources should be evaluated. This includes questions about the necessity of characterizing light sources for flicker, the (potentially visible) temporal variation of emitted light. While conventional light sources operating on alternating current (AC) modulate light output, the variety and severity of modulation seen with LED products — from good to poor — has sparked new interest in quantifying and understanding its impact.
Published by the U.S. Department of Energy, March 2013.